Computational fluid dynamics predictions of draught and trim variations on ship resistance in confined waters

Published in Applied Ocean Research, 2022

Recommended citation: Campbell, R., Terziev, M., Tezdogan, T., Incecik, A., Investigating the influence of loading condition on ship performance using CFD. Applied Ocean Research.


Adjusting a vessel’s trim to improve resistance characteristics is a promising strategy to improve the energy efficiency of maritime transport. However, the vast majority of scientific effort has been directed at such gains in deep, unrestricted waters. Shallow and confined waters modify the flow and pressure distribution around a ship, altering considerably the resistance curve. This study aims to elucidate trim and draught increase effects on a ship’s resistance while advancing through a restricted waterway using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The results show that increasing the draught of a benchmark hull incurs an added hydrodynamic resistance of approximately 10% to 15% depending on the ship speed. On the other hand, the smallest resistance is obtained when small trim angles by bow are introduced. A combination of trim and draught change may be used to offset this added hydrodynamic penalty. The numerical model used predicts the resistance is higher by only 0.87% for low speeds, and may even lead to a reduction of 0.34% in the total resistance coefficient for the highest speed examined.

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